A single building in the garden,with various forms, can be both used as a separate attraction and as a practical building.The garden architecture adopted the wooden-frame structure method and used the combination of the roof, the colonnade and the platform.
The halls adopted rectangle or round wood to make the beam frame. Divided by the appearance, there are all-side halls, lotus halls, flower halls and other types.
Windowed Verandas and Museums
Windowed verandas, naming Xuan in Chinese, was similar to that of an ancient car, taking its meaning of being spacious and open. Usually built in a high place which were suitable for the landscape, it, with open on three sides, exquisite and light, giving a sense of coolness, was a unique way of gardening architecture in the South. Such as the the scented garden of Liu Yuan.
The museums are of varying sizes and headings, linking to a small group of buildings with large courtyards in the front., such as the 18 Mandala Garden in the Humble Administrator’s Garden which are located in Guangchi to the north and with high walls to the south, with entrances and exits in the four corners.
Lodges and Platforms
The reason that lodges are different from the halls is that lodges must be located in a secluded place in the garden, and should not be displayed in an open place.
Xuexiang Yunwei Platform
Platforms are stone or loess based which are tall, flat and simple, providing convenience to climb up and look around , such as Xuexiang Yunwei platform in the Humble Administrator's Garden.
Stored Buildings and Pavilions
Mountain-Viewing Stored Building
The stored buildings are often two-story around the park or between mountains and rivers, such as the Mountain-Viewing Stored Building in the Humble Administrator's Garden.
Foxiangge in the Summer Palace
The pavilion, a building with the roof of four slopes and windows that are open on all sides, is lighter than a stored building. The Fragrant House of the Longevity Hill in the Summer Palace, with its 41-meter platform, is the highest pavilion in the country.
The Pavilion on Terrace and the Boat House
The pavilion on terrace, with flexible forms, is based half in the water and half in the pool's shore, opening to the water. The boat house, built on the water, looked like an old official ship and provided meals and sightseeing. In fact, it has become a combination of the five buildings of platforms, lodges, windowed verandas, buildings, and bridges.
Colonnade and Bridge
Stone Bridge in Shizilin Xiao Feihong Bridge
Colonnades, referring to independent roofed passages, united the house and its landscape into a whole, which provided sunshade in hot summers and shelters in rainy days. It functioned as the divider of scenes and contemplation, as well as the coordinator of various sights. For example, there is a colonnade between Reflection Building and Yingting Pavilion in the Humble Administrator's Garden. Another example is the 728-meter-long colonnade at the Qianshan Lake in the Summer Palace.
Yin Jing Bridge
Bridge is a common single building in a garden, with various types, such as the curved bridges or flat bridges that are close to the water surface, single-hole stone arch bridges and roofed bridges.
The pavilion is a place for people to stop and gather which is an open, small building with gardens dotted with greenery, such as the Bieyoudongtian, meaning Another Scene, in the Humble Administrator's Garden, forming an integral whole with the corridor. The fan booth is a special form of pavilion whose roofs are like folding fans and located at the corner of the scenic spot.
After Buddhism was introduced to China, the buddhist pagoda almost became a landmark of a temple. The towers in Chinese temple gardens were initially borrowed from the form of towers in Indian Buddhist architecture which the sense of originality was very strong. In the beginning they were solid genital stones, while later separated the outside and core, becoming a tower. With the completion of the transformation in China, the towers in Chinese temples had brought a strong oriental sense to the structure, materials, configuration and decoration.
Xu Mi Zuo
Xu Mi Zuo
Judging from the highlands of the palace in the archaeological site of the Yin Ruins, traditional Chinese architecture had already established the concept of building a platform to increase the sense of dignity in buildings. At the time of the Six Dynasties, with the introduction of Buddhism, the form of stylobates began to change, and Xu Mi Zuo became a visually decorative platform.
The column base in ancient Chinese buildings was used between the bottom end of the pillars and the stylobate, which functioned in the spreading of the column's weight to the ground, waterproof and decoration.
It was a unique component of ancient Chinese architecture consisting of square wooden blocks, arched short wooden beams and long wooden slopes. It is usually placed between the stigma and the roofs to support the load beam frame.
The variety appearance and grand sizes of roofs could reveal the status of the homeowners. The traditional material was composed of three parts from the inside to the outside, the base, the combination layer and the surface layer in order, and the roof decoration.
Ma Tau Wall is an important feature of Huizhou architecture. In the villages where the communities live together, the density of residential buildings is relatively high, resulting in the prominent contradictions that are not conducive to fire prevention. The tall Ma Tau Wall, in the case of a fire in an adjacent residential building, acts as a source of fire isolation.
The Ma Tau Wall showed the owner's ideal pursuit of studying and being officials. Due to its design, the tall, closed wall appears to be like patchwork. Due to the Ma Tau Wall, the rigid buildings reveal a dynamic beauty. Looking down, the ups and downs of the walls in the villages present a scene of galloping horses symbolizing the freshness and prosperity of the entire clan.
The Quadrangle with Courtyard
It has been the main form of Chinese architecture for thousands of years. In the enclosures which are reserved but warm, Chinese ideology and aesthetic are fully revealed. It has nourished and cultivated the nation, becoming its most common traditional lifestyle. The courtyard space contains almost all the necessities of a home. The enclosure not only refers to the physical protection, but to the establishment of the relationship among people, forming a separate but complete space and a sense of security and belonging. It also forms a large gap, which ensures the privacy of the residents and removes the feeling of obturation, promoting air circulation and creating a comfortable living condition.
Vermilion Gate and Hollow Window
Highness tends to give a feeling of depression. Therefore, hollow windows are often carved on the walls with abstract patterns using homophonic and metaphorical methods, such as various dragons which symbolize royal powers express the wish to reach the goal. These patterns not only play a decorative and beautifying role, but also have the function of lighting, ventilation, dust prevention and space division. Vermilion, one of the red colors, is an opaque color made of cinnabar. Because the main colors of the palace's decoration are in gold and red, so vermilion represents nobleness and authority, and gates in the color symbolizes dignity.
The Carvings of Hui Zhou
In ancient Huizhou architecture, stone carvings, brick carvings and wood carvings are most exquisite which are excellent in the handling of raw materials and the integration with the entire environment. They can also be as fresh and elegant as ink paintings, especially the wood carving arts, adding to the quaint architecture. Carving figures, landscapes, flowers and other patterns on the indigo bricks is an important form of art in ancient architecture carvings which is mainly used to decorate the components and walls of temple towers, tombs, houses and other buildings, embellishing with sketches to make the buildings and landscapes blend into one, showing a strong folk flavor.
In China, pitched roof is almost synonymous with traditional architecture, occupying a decisive position. The design makes palaces, temples and other buildings unique, vigorous, invigorating and flowing. Pitched roofs have many advantages, such as energy savings, beneficiary to heat dissipation in summer and cold preventing in winter, as well as ventilation and drainage .
As China's unique architectural structure, the cornice, the upturned corners of eaves, is a special treatment and creation of the Chinese ancient architecture, commonly used in the corner of the roof of the pavilions, towers, houses, palaces and temples. Shaped like flying birds, they are one of the most important manifestations of national styles in Chinese architecture. The design of the cornice is ingenious and gives a pleasing artistic enjoyment on which often sculpted patterns, like unicorns, flying cranes, symbolizing a protection against evil.
Indigo Brick, White Wall and Black Tiles,
In terms of architectural coloration, houses in the south of the Yangtze River are built with indigo bricks, white walls and black tiles, forming a rustic and elegant style. The general appearance of the water towns are a combination of bungalow buildings and gables forming a variety of undulating and patchy landscapes on the alleys and waterway revetments, presenting a light and concise scene in elegant colors.